How Your Septic System Works -Detail Guide

The use of septic systems has increased because of their beneficial effects, but most domestic users aren’t aware of the mechanism happening in their septic systems. 

For that purpose, we are here with this handy solution to let you get familiarized with the mechanism of how your septic system works. 

Septic systems have many types, and each of them might have its unique mechanism, but the ultimate goal is to reduce solid waste and circulate the water back into the environment. 

Septic systems are opted for because of their eco-friendly nature.

Septic System Working 

Septic systems work by the following mechanism.

Collection of waste matter

All the waste from the house goes into the septic tank, where it is collected.

Formation of layers 

At that point, the waste forms three layers. 

The layers in the septic tank are by the mechanism of time, floatation, and gravitational force. 

They cause the waste to form three prime layers. 

Septic System Works

These layers comprise the soap and grease layer, water waste, and sludge from top to bottom of the tank. 

  1. Sludge 

It’s the heaviest layer and includes Heavy matter like feces, plastic, toilet paper, grit, and solid food waste. 

Due to their heavy nature, they reside down at the bottom. 

Sludge remains in the tank bottom until fully decomposed by the Naturally-occurring bacteria.

 A  limit reaches where it is necessary to pump out it because the. Bacteria slowly digest it, while the matter is stored too fast.

  1. Scum

It comprises Lighter matter, including fats, oils, soaps, and grease. The top layer floats on the surface of the tank. 

  1. Partially treated wastewater

In between the top and the bottom layer lies the remaining water waste. It is composed of soluble organic contaminants and different kinds of suspended solids.

Drain field 

From these layers, the middle layer, wastewater is pumped into the drain field lines, while the sludge remains in the tank where the action of bacteria occurs. 

The anaerobic bacteria decompose the matter. In this process, no air is required for bacteria because ether bacteria present are anaerobic that do not require oxygen for their action.

Effluent filter

The wastewater should be free from sludge. For that purpose, an effluent pump in your septic system needs. The purpose of the effluent filter is to catch all the solid waste and not allow them to flow into the drain field.

Leach field

The wastewater passes through the drain field lines, from where they are leached out into the soil by the perforated pipes. Once the wastewater travels in the leach field (through sand and grit), the filtration and Microbial action take place in the tank. Clean water reaches the water table to make the environment eco-friendly.

Mechanical Septic System Work 

Mechanical septic systems are aerobic septic units (ATU). They comprise aerobic bacteria that decompose the matter in the presence of oxygen. 

Working 

Pre-chamber 

It is not necessary to be present in all systems. The function of the pre-chamber is to maintain the waste flow into the aerobic septic unit. The chamber stores the waste and releases a limited amount after a specified time.

Aeration chamber

The aeration chamber is the heart of the septic system. Once the waste enters the septic tank, the air flows into the tank. The bacteria, in the presence of oxygen, decompose the solid matter. Aerobic bacteria utilize oxygen and slowly decompose the solid waste matter.

Common Aeration Types

Your septic system will operate by any of the following aeration techniques. 

  • Positive pressure aeration system.
  • Negative pressure aeration system.
  • Pull-up aeration system.
  • Push-Pull aeration system.
  • Manifold aeration system on two bins.
  • Crossflow aeration system.

Clarifier chamber

In this chamber, the solid waste and water waste get separated. The solid waste remains in the aeration chamber for decomposition while the waster waste is allowed to the disposal chamber where further treatment occurs.

Disposal chamber and Discharge

At the disposal chamber, the liquid waste gets disinfected by the action of chlorine. After the chlorination process, the water gets out through the sprinklers system.

Rural Area Septic System Working

Septic systems are also opted in rural areas and are of different kinds, but commonly they opt for the mechanism with three main steps. 

Working 

Septic systems work in rural areas by the following mechanism.

  • Formation of layers

All the waste from the house goes into the septic tank. At that point, the waste separates into three layers. These layers comprise the soap and grease layer, water waste, and sludge. These layers form from top to bottom of the tank. 

  • Drain field 

From these layers, the middle layer, wastewater is pumped into the drain field lines, while the sludge remains in the tank where the action of bacteria occurs.

The anaerobic bacteria decompose the matter. In this process, no air is required for bacteria because ether bacteria present are anaerobic that do not require oxygen for their action.

  • Leach field

The wastewater passes through the drain field lines, from where they are leached out into the soil by the perforated pipes. Once the wastewater travels in the leach field (through sand and gravel), the filtration and Microbial action occur. Clean water reaches the water table to make the environment eco-friendly.

Bio Septic Tank Working 

A bio septic system work by the following mechanism;

It opts to utilize aerobic and aerobic bacteria and act as a modern septic system.

Working 

Several chambers may be present inside a bio septic tank.

  • Anaerobic Septic Unit 

All the waste flows into the septic tank, where the presence of anaerobic bacteria starts to decompose. In this unit, biogas is generated by the action of anaerobic bacteria.

  • Aerobic Septic Unit 

The water waster then travels into the aeration tank, where aerobic bacteria start their action in the presence of oxygen. 

The bacteria start to decompose the waste. The waste turns back into water, methane, and carbon dioxide. 

  • Chlorinator 

After that, water moves through the chlorinator chamber, where chlorine reacts with the water. Chlorine disinfects the remaining pathogens to produce usable water. 

  • Discharge 

Clean water is allowed for the use of gardening, irrigation, etc.

Gravity Fed Septic System Working

The gravity-fed septic system is another type of septic system that operates on a gravitational mechanism.

Septic System Working

Working 

  • Formation of layers 

All the waste from the house goes into the septic tank. At that point, the waste turns into three layers. 

  • Sludge 

It’s the heaviest layer and includes Heavy matter like feces, plastic, toilet paper, grit, and solid food waste. 

Due to their heavy nature, they reside down at the bottom. 

Sludge remains in the tank bottom until fully decomposed by the Naturally-occurring bacteria.

  • Scum

It comprises Lighter matter, including fats, oils, soaps, and grease. The top layer floats on the surface of the tank. 

  • Partially treated wastewater

In between the top and the bottom layer lies the remaining water waste. It is composed of soluble organic contaminants and different kinds of suspended solids.

  • Bacterial action 

The sludge remains in the tank, decomposed by bacterial action. 

  • Distribution box 

The liquid wastewater flows into a distribution box connected to the gravity drain field area. 

  • Gravity field drain

The water waste enters the gravity drain field, which allows the water to either get absorbed by the soil or through natural filtration of sand and gravel to reach the water bed underground.

Cesspit Working 

People living in the rural area sometimes opt for Cesspits. These are commonly present in properties that lack a connection to the prime sewer system.

Septic-tank

How work and when to empty them

They work as waste storage units. After a day or two should be evacuated for treatment.

Working 

The function of the Cesspits is to collect all the waste generated. After collection, it lies in the cesspit. After a day, removed for further treatment. 

Cesspits are not sewage treatment units that only store the matter for further action. The waste is eliminated more often depending upon the number of people residing in the house.

How to Keep a Septic System Working Properly 

To maintain the eco-friendly nature of any septic tank, inspect it from time to time. 

On-time inspection and maintenance are the keys to enhancing the working efficiency of your septic.

Maintenance guidelines

  • Limit the disposal of oil and grease 
  • Prevent scum and clog 
  • Maintenance every 3-5 years 
  • Prevent the formation of suds
  • Avoid disposing of harmful chemicals 
  • Preventing non-biodegradable materials 
  • Keep the maintenance records
  • Limit the use of drain cleaners
  • Avoid medicine disposal in the tank.
  • Prevent using additives. 
  • Don’t dispose of the toilet paper.
  • Ensure the use of non-quilted paper 
  • Frequently pumping
  • Avoid flushing paper towels or wipes into the tank
  • Do care in terms of laundry. 
  • Use of biodegradable detergents 
  • Inspect all our fixtures 
  • Timely Repair the leaks 
  • Limit the use of water softeners

Conclusion 

Finally, we are at the end of the informational piece of work, where we have discussed the working of all commonly used septic systems. 

Following the working mechanism, septic tanks are eco-friendly, economical, Eco friendly, have low maintenance requirements, and have leak-proof systems.

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